The Text Dependent Analysis (TDA) grade-span Learning Progressions (LPs) are designed to be used as an instructional tool. The TDA LPs are structured in grade spans (3-5 and 6-8) with four levels, Beginning, Emerging, Development, and Meeting. The levels describe the typical path we see in student responses as the student moves toward demonstrating more sophisticated understanding of analysis. The LPs include descriptions of student work which characterize each level from the beginning TDA writer to one who is meeting the expectations of text dependent analysis essay writing. The TDA LPs can be used by teachers to identify student strengths and needs based on what a student can do at a specific point in time. This informs the teacher's instructional decision-making about moving student comprehension, analysis and writing to the next level.
The Text Dependent Analysis Instructional Prompt Guides contain the following sections: text complexity, instructional text-dependent analysis prompt, example proficient student response as written by the teacher, grade-level text, annotated student work, and possible instructional next steps. The guides should be used in conjunction with the Learning Progressions.
The Text Dependent Analysis (TDA) Close Reading Lessons are designed to be an example pathway for teaching comprehension and analysis of the reading elements. The Close Reading instructional plan guides teachers through the planning and teaching of each lesson, as well as modeling the response to a TDA prompt. The close reading lessons focus on the text excerpt and corresponding prompt in each grade-level Instructional Prompt Guide with Annotated Student Responses.
Emerging entities are listed as disease subtypes under a novel rubric of other defined genetic alterations. This is envisioned as a landing spot in the classification to incorporate new/rare entities whose recognition is increasing as high-throughput molecular diagnostic tools become more available. This approach replaces the assignment of provisional status to such entities. It is recognized that the diagnosis of such subtypes might not be feasible in all practice settings. A set of decision support guidelines was adopted to aid in determining what subtypes would qualify in this context; they include: (1) having distinct molecular or cytogenetic features driven by established oncogenic mechanisms; (2) not meeting subtype criteria under other tumour types with defining genetic abnormalities; (3) having distinct pathologic and clinical features, including - but not limited to - response to therapeutic interventions; and, (4) at least two quality peer-review publications by distinct investigator groups.
ALK-positive histiocytosis, which shows a broad clinicopathologic spectrum unified by the presence of ALK gene translocation (most commonly KIF5B::ALK) and remarkable response to ALK-inhibitor therapy, has been better characterized in recent studies [88, 96]. The multisystem systemic form that typically occurs in infants, with involvement of liver, spleen and/or bone marrow, runs a protracted course but often resolves slowly, either spontaneously or with chemotherapy. Other multisystem and single-system cases occur in any age group, with involvement of two or more organs or one organ alone, respectively, most commonly central/peripheral nervous system and skin; the disease has a favourable outcome with systemic and/or surgical therapy [88, 97]. The histiocytes in ALK-positive histiocytosis can assume variable appearances including large oval cells, foamy cells and spindle cells, some with multinucleation (including Touton giant cells) or emperipolesis. That is, morphology is not entirely diagnostic, and overlaps extensively with that of juvenile xanthogranuloma and rarely RDD. Thus, it is recommended that ALK immunostaining be performed for histiocytic proliferations not conforming to defined entities, to screen for possible ALK-positive histiocytosis. 1e1e36bf2d